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What Is Kratom (Mitragyna Speciose?

MadelineTomczak35 2020.01.20 07:08 조회 수 : 982

Kratom is an herbal leaf with medicinal properties that grows from a large tree called Mitragyna speciosa. Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a psychoactive plant in the coffee family native to Southeast Asia. Kratom is the dried and crushed (or powdered) leaves from the species Mitragyna speciosa, a tree which is native to Southeast Asia. Kumarnsit, E., Keawpradub, N., and Nuankaew, W. (2007), ‘Effect of Mitragyna speciosa aqueous extract on ethanol withdrawal symptoms in mice.

This is the case of Mitragyna speciosa (kratom), a tropical tree used to improve work performance and to withstand great heat. Kumarnsit, E., Vongvatcharanon, U., Keawpradub, N. and Intasaro, P. (2007), ‘Fos-like immunoreactivity in rat dorsal raphe nuclei induced by alkaloid extract of Mitragyna speciosa', Neuroscience Letters, Volume 416, pp. 128-132.

Although the cultivation of ketum trees is considered to be nonillegal, those caught for distributing ketum or in possession of processed ketum leaves can be fined up to a maximum of RM10,000 or sentence to a 4‐year jail term, or both (Vicknasingam et al., 2010 ). More recently, the Malaysian government has proposed a new bill in parliament to reschedule ketum from the Poisons Act 1952, to the Dangerous Drugs Act, 1952.

A lot of short and long-term users claimed to have felt an increase in their capability for hard work, activeness, and heightened sexual desire 13 , 15 An anonymous cross-sectional online survey was conducted in the USA in 2006, where 8049 users were studied through available social media and online resources from the American Kratom Association 16 This study concluded that kratom is primarily used by middle-aged (31-50 years) and middle-income ($35,000 and above) individuals, the main purposes being to treat pain (68%) and emotional or mental conditions (66%).

The cocktails are made from wholesale kratom leaves, a caffeine-containing soft drink, and codeine- or diphenhydramine-containing cough syrup as the three basic ingredients to which ice cubes, an anxiolytic, an antidepressant or an analgesic drug is added. Singh D, Müller CP, Vicknasingam BK. Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) dependence, withdrawal symptoms and craving in regular users.

It is also applied as a wound poultice, and believed to be a deworming agent and appetite suppressor (Assanangkornchai, Muekthong, Sam‐Angsri, & Pattanasattayawong, 2006 ; Burkill, 1935 ; Burkill & Haniff, 1930 ; Lee, 1957 ; Saingam et al., 2012 ). One Malaysian study cited self‐reports of ketum being used as an aphrodisiac to heighten sexual desire (Vicknasingam, Narayanan, Beng, & Mansor, 2010 ). Interestingly, the only medical use of kratom in the West has been to treat chronic pain (Singh et al., 2016 ).

When kratom is not available, the leaves of Mitragyna javanica (other name Mitragyna parvifolia) are used as substitute. There is a specific Mitragyna speciosa guide that manufacturers use for capsules to help users understand the quantity of powder within each capsule.
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